2013 Ghouta chemical attacks | Wikipedia audio article 2

2013 Ghouta chemical attacks | Wikipedia audio article



This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghouta_chemical_attack

00:03:09 1 Background
00:04:47 1.1 Khan al-Assal chemical attack
00:05:46 1.2 Independent International Commission of Inquiry
00:06:46 1.3 Assessments prior to the attack
00:06:55 1.3.1 US assessment
00:08:01 1.3.2 Russian assessment
00:08:31 2 Attacks
00:08:48 2.1 Eastern Ghouta attack
00:10:04 2.2 Western Ghouta attack
00:11:19 3 Chemical weapons capability
00:13:17 4 Initial claims
00:13:45 4.1 Opposition claims
00:15:03 4.2 Government claims
00:15:42 5 UN investigation
00:19:51 5.1 UN Ghouta Area report
00:21:51 5.1.1 Responses
00:23:09 5.2 Final UN Mission report
00:24:32 5.3 UN Human Rights Council report
00:25:17 6 Aftermath
00:27:12 7 Reactions
00:27:21 7.1 Domestic
00:29:19 7.2 International
00:31:10 7.3 Allegations of false flag attack
00:33:03 8 Evidence
00:33:11 8.1 Witness statements and victim symptoms
00:37:00 8.1.1 Analysis of symptoms
00:38:16 8.2 Rockets
00:40:10 8.3 Communications
00:41:39 8.4 Video
00:44:55 9 Foreign government assessments
00:45:40 9.1 France
00:46:55 9.2 Germany
00:47:43 9.3 Israel
00:48:38 9.4 Russia
00:49:43 9.5 Turkey
00:50:37 9.6 United Kingdom
00:52:33 9.7 United States
00:57:12 10 Legal status
00:57:20 10.1 Attack
00:58:24 10.2 International Criminal Court referral
00:59:24 11 See also

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SUMMARY
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The Ghouta chemical attack occurred in Ghouta, Syria during the Syrian Civil War, in the early hours of 21 August 2013. Two opposition-controlled areas in the suburbs around Damascus, Syria were struck by rockets containing the chemical agent sarin. Estimates of the death toll range from at least 281 people to 1,729. The attack was the deadliest use of chemical weapons since the Iran–Iraq War.Inspectors from the United Nations Mission already in Syria to investigate an earlier alleged chemical weapons attack requested access to sites in Ghouta the day after the attack and called for a ceasefire to allow inspectors to visit the Ghouta sites. The Syrian Ba’athist government granted the UN’s request on 25 August, and inspectors visited and investigated Moadamiyah in Western Ghouta the next day and Zamalka and Ein Tarma in Eastern Ghouta on 28 and 29 August.The UN investigation team confirmed “clear and convincing evidence” of the use of sarin delivered by surface-to-surface rockets, and a 2014 report by the UN Human Rights Council found that “significant quantities of sarin were used in a well-planned indiscriminate attack targeting civilian-inhabited areas, causing mass casualties. The evidence available concerning the nature, quality and quantity of the agents used on 21 August indicated that the perpetrators likely had access to the chemical weapons stockpile of the Syrian military, as well as the expertise and equipment necessary to safely manipulate large amount of chemical agents.” It also stated that the chemical agents used in the Khan al-Assal chemical attack earlier in 2013 “bore the same unique hallmarks as those used in Al-Ghouta”.The Syrian opposition as well as many governments, the Arab League and the European Union stated the attack was carried out by forces of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. The Syrian and Russian governments blamed the opposition for the attack, the Russian government calling the attack a false flag operation by the opposition to draw foreign powers into the civil war on the rebels’ side. Åke Sellström, the leader of the UN Mission, characterized government explanations of rebel chemical weapons acquisition as unconvincing, resting in part upon “poor theories”.Several countries including France, the United Kingdom and the United States debated whether to intervene militarily against Syrian Ba’athist government forces. On 6 September 2013, the United States Senate filed a resolution to authorize use of m …

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