Arsenic | Wikipedia audio article 2

Arsenic | Wikipedia audio article

This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:

00:01:42 1 Characteristics
00:01:51 1.1 Physical characteristics
00:03:41 1.2 Isotopes
00:05:02 1.3 Chemistry
00:06:58 2 Compounds
00:07:42 2.1 Inorganic compounds
00:10:16 2.1.1 Alloys
00:10:48 2.2 Organoarsenic compounds
00:11:34 3 Occurrence and production
00:13:18 4 History
00:16:38 5 Applications
00:16:47 5.1 Agricultural
00:20:00 5.2 Medical use
00:21:19 5.3 Alloys
00:22:14 5.4 Military
00:22:54 5.5 Other uses
00:23:54 6 Biological role
00:24:03 6.1 Bacteria
00:25:30 7 Essential trace element in higher animals
00:25:53 7.1 Heredity
00:27:04 7.2 Biomethylation
00:27:54 8 Environmental issues
00:28:03 8.1 Exposure
00:28:38 8.2 Occurrence in drinking water
00:35:20 8.2.1 San Pedro de Atacama
00:35:40 8.2.2 Hazard maps for contaminated groundwater
00:36:10 8.3 Redox transformation of arsenic in natural waters
00:42:02 8.4 Wood preservation in the US
00:43:59 8.5 Mapping of industrial releases in the US
00:44:56 8.6 Bioremediation
00:46:19 9 Toxicity and precautions
00:46:33 9.1 Classification
00:47:26 9.2 Legal limits, food, and drink
00:52:02 9.3 Occupational exposure limits
00:52:12 9.4 Ecotoxicity
00:52:49 9.5 Toxicity in animals
00:52:58 9.6 Biological mechanism
00:54:11 9.7 Exposure risks and remediation
00:55:11 9.8 Treatment

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“The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.”
– Socrates

Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33. Arsenic occurs in many minerals, usually in combination with sulfur and metals, but also as a pure elemental crystal. Arsenic is a metalloid. It has various allotropes, but only the gray form, which has a metallic appearance, is important to industry.
The primary use of arsenic is in alloys of lead (for example, in car batteries and ammunition). Arsenic is a common n-type dopant in semiconductor electronic devices, and the optoelectronic compound gallium arsenide is the second most commonly used semiconductor after doped silicon. Arsenic and its compounds, especially the trioxide, are used in the production of pesticides, treated wood products, herbicides, and insecticides. These applications are declining due to the toxicity of arsenic and its compounds.A few species of bacteria are able to use arsenic compounds as respiratory metabolites. Trace quantities of arsenic are an essential dietary element in rats, hamsters, goats, chickens, and presumably other species. A role in human metabolism is not known. However, arsenic poisoning occurs in multicellular life if quantities are larger than needed. Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a problem that affects millions of people across the world.
The United States’ Environmental Protection Agency states that all forms of arsenic are a serious risk to human health. The United States’ Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ranked arsenic as number 1 in its 2001 Priority List of Hazardous Substances at Superfund sites. Arsenic is classified as a Group-A carcinogen.


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