Iodine | Wikipedia audio article 2

Iodine | Wikipedia audio article



This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iodine

00:01:30 1 History
00:03:44 2 Properties
00:08:59 2.1 Isotopes
00:12:49 3 Chemistry and compounds
00:13:51 3.1 Hydrogen iodide
00:16:23 3.2 Other binary iodides
00:16:41 3.3 Iodine halides
00:21:10 3.4 Iodine oxides and oxoacids
00:24:05 3.5 Polyiodine compounds
00:25:48 3.6 Organoiodine compounds
00:30:17 4 Occurrence and production
00:31:55 5 Applications
00:32:17 5.1 Chemical Analysis
00:35:22 5.2 Spectroscopy
00:38:14 5.3 Medicine
00:39:08 5.3.1 Elemental iodine
00:40:00 5.3.2 Other formulations
00:40:45 5.4 Others
00:40:53 6 Biological role
00:42:37 6.1 Dietary intake
00:44:28 6.2 Deficiency
00:45:43 7 Toxicity
00:45:57 7.1 Occupational exposure
00:48:00 7.2 Allergic reactions
00:50:34 8 References
00:51:37 9 Bibliography
00:52:53 Occupational exposure
00:53:41 Allergic reactions

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SUMMARY
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Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53. The heaviest of the stable halogens, it exists as a lustrous, purple-black non-metallic solid at standard conditions that sublimes readily to form a violet gas. The elemental form was discovered by the French chemist Bernard Courtois in 1811. It was named two years later by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac from this property, after the Greek ἰώδης “violet-coloured”.
Iodine occurs in many oxidation states, including iodide (I−), iodate (IO−3), and the various periodate anions. It is the least abundant of the stable halogens, being the sixty-first most abundant element. It is even less abundant than the so-called rare earths. It is the heaviest essential mineral nutrient. Iodine is essential in the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency affects about two billion people and is the leading preventable cause of intellectual disabilities.
The dominant producers of iodine today are Chile and Japan. Iodine and its compounds are primarily used in nutrition. Due to its high atomic number and ease of attachment to organic compounds, it has also found favour as a non-toxic radiocontrast material. Because of the specificity of its uptake by the human body, radioactive isotopes of iodine can also be used to treat thyroid cancer. Iodine is also used as a catalyst in the industrial production of acetic acid and some polymers.

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